Sometimes cancer or cancer treatment can affect your appetite.
Though you might not feel like eating, it's important to do what you can to maintain your calorie, protein and fluid intake during cancer treatment. Use this information to help plan meals and snacks that will be more appealing and provide the nutrition you need to get better.
Keep in mind that in some cases, such as advanced cancer, eating may not affect the outcome of your illness or treatment. In these situations, trying to follow specific dietary guidelines, such as adhering to a low-sodium or low-fat diet, may not be practical.
Sometimes caregivers or family members can unintentionally add stress by pushing or trying to force you to eat certain foods. Ask your doctor how carefully you need to follow specific dietary guidelines.
During illness, treatment or recovery, your need for calories and protein may be greater than usual. The following suggestions can help increase the number of calories you consume:
- Add butter or oils to foods. Use butter or margarine generously on potatoes, bread, toast, hot cereal, rice, noodles and vegetables and in soups. Put olive oil or another oil on bread, rice, pasta and vegetables.
- Spread peanut butter or other nut butters — which contain protein and healthy fats — on toast, bread, apple or banana slices, crackers, or celery. Dip pretzels in peanut butter.
- Use croissants or biscuits to make sandwiches.
- Add powdered creamer or dry milk powder to hot cocoa, milkshakes, hot cereal, gravy, sauces, meatloaf, cream soups or puddings.
- Add sliced avocado or guacamole to salads and sandwiches.
- Add seeds, such as sunflower and pumpkin seeds, to salads, stir-fries and casseroles.
- Add ground flaxseeds to yogurt, smoothies, hot cereals and casseroles.
- Top hot cereal with brown sugar, honey, dried fruit, cream or nut butter.
- Top pie, cake, gelatin or pudding with ice cream, whipped cream or cream.
- Use fruit canned in heavy syrup. It has more calories than does fresh or juice-packed fruit. If you prefer fresh fruit, add sugar and cream.
- Drink beverages that contain calories, such as fruit juice, lemonade, fruit-flavored drinks, malts, floats, soda pop, cocoa, milkshakes, smoothies and eggnog. Nutritional supplement drinks are convenient options.
Though some of these suggestions add more fat and sugar to your diet, this shouldn't be a concern since you're only adding the extra calories until you can get your appetite back on track. Check with your doctor or a dietitian if you have concerns about changing the way you eat.
Protein is important for growth, health and repair of your body. If you've been ill, you may need extra protein. Some suggestions include:
- Add extra meat, poultry, fish, cheese or beans (pinto, navy, black, kidney) to casseroles, soups or stews.
- Choose meat salads, such as chicken, ham, turkey or tuna.
- Make your own high-protein milk: Add 1/4 cup powdered milk to 1 cup whole milk, or add 1 cup powdered milk to 1 quart whole milk. Use it as a beverage, add it to malts or shakes, or use it in cooking.
- Try a commercially prepared protein supplement.
If illness has made red meat — beef, pork or lamb — less appealing to you, try the following foods, which also are good sources of protein:
- Cottage cheese
- Nuts and nut butters
- Peanut butter
- Vegetarian burgers
Drinking plenty of fluids also is key to helping your body during treatment. Try to drink at least 64 ounces (2 liters) of fluid a day, unless your doctor has directed you to limit your fluid intake.
Try to choose drinks that contain calories. If sweetened beverages are too sweet, try flavored water or fruit juices diluted with water.
Consider a multivitamin
If your loss of appetite is keeping you from eating well for more than a few days, you might consider asking your doctor about taking a multivitamin. Cancer treatments and other medications can interact with nutritional supplements, so discuss it with your doctor first.
Check the label and look for a multivitamin that doesn't give you more than 100% of the Daily Value of all the vitamins and minerals.
Keep in mind, though, that if you're eating or drinking nutritional supplements, such as bars, cookies, smoothies and other products that are fortified with additional vitamins and minerals, you may not need a multivitamin or additional supplements.