If your hernia is small and isn't bothering you, your doctor might recommend watchful waiting. Sometimes, wearing a supportive truss may help relieve symptoms, but check with your doctor first because it's important that the truss fits properly. In children, the doctor might try applying manual pressure to reduce the bulge before considering surgery.
Enlarging or painful hernias usually require surgery to relieve discomfort and prevent serious complications.
There are two general types of hernia operations — open hernia repair and laparoscopic repair.
Open hernia repair
In this procedure, which might be done with local anesthesia and sedation or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and pushes the protruding tissue back into your abdomen. The surgeon then sews the weakened area, often reinforcing it with a synthetic mesh (hernioplasty). The opening is then closed with stitches, staples or surgical glue.
After the surgery, you'll be encouraged to move about as soon as possible, but it might be several weeks before you're able to resume normal activities.
In this minimally invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia, the surgeon operates through several small incisions in your abdomen. Gas is used to inflate your abdomen to make the internal organs easier to see.
A small tube equipped with a tiny camera (laparoscope) is inserted into one incision. Guided by the camera, the surgeon inserts tiny instruments through other incisions to repair the hernia using synthetic mesh.
People who have laparoscopic repair might have less discomfort and scarring after surgery and a quicker return to normal activities. However, hernia recurrence may be more likely with laparoscopic repair than with open surgery. Having a surgeon who is very experienced in the laparoscopic procedure may reduce this risk.
Laparoscopy allows the surgeon to avoid scar tissue from an earlier hernia repair, so it might be a good choice for people whose hernias recur after open hernia surgery. It also might be a good choice for people with hernias on both sides of the body (bilateral).
As with open surgery, it may be a few weeks before you can get back to your usual activity level.