Many people with COPD have mild forms of the disease for which little therapy is needed other than smoking cessation. Even for more advanced stages of disease, effective therapy is available that can control symptoms, slow progression, reduce your risk of complications and exacerbations, and improve your ability to lead an active life.
The most essential step in any treatment plan for COPD is to quit all smoking. Stopping smoking can keep COPD from getting worse and reducing your ability to breathe. But quitting smoking isn't easy. And this task may seem particularly daunting if you've tried to quit and have been unsuccessful.
Talk to your doctor about nicotine replacement products and medications that might help, as well as how to handle relapses. Your doctor may also recommend a support group for people who want to quit smoking. Also, avoid secondhand smoke exposure whenever possible.
Several kinds of medications are used to treat the symptoms and complications of COPD. You may take some medications on a regular basis and others as needed.
Bronchodilators are medications that usually come in inhalers — they relax the muscles around your airways. This can help relieve coughing and shortness of breath and make breathing easier. Depending on the severity of your disease, you may need a short-acting bronchodilator before activities, a long-acting bronchodilator that you use every day or both.
Examples of short-acting bronchodilators include:
- Albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA, others)
- Ipratropium (Atrovent HFA)
- Levalbuterol (Xopenex)
Examples of long-acting bronchodilators include:
- Aclidinium (Tudorza Pressair)
- Arformoterol (Brovana)
- Formoterol (Perforomist)
- Indacaterol (Arcapta Neoinhaler)
- Tiotropium (Spiriva)
- Salmeterol (Serevent)
- Umeclidinium (Incruse Ellipta)
Inhaled corticosteroid medications can reduce airway inflammation and help prevent exacerbations. Side effects may include bruising, oral infections and hoarseness. These medications are useful for people with frequent exacerbations of COPD. Examples of inhaled steroids include:
- Fluticasone (Flovent HFA)
- Budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler)
Some medications combine bronchodilators and inhaled steroids. Examples of these combination inhalers include:
- Fluticasone and vilanterol (Breo Ellipta)
- Fluticasone, umeclidinium and vilanterol (Trelegy Ellipta)
- Formoterol and budesonide (Symbicort)
- Salmeterol and fluticasone (Advair HFA, AirDuo Digihaler, others)
Combination inhalers that include more than one type of bronchodilator also are available. Examples of these include:
- Aclidinium and formoterol (Duaklir Pressair)
- Albuterol and ipratropium (Combivent Respimat)
- Formoterol and glycopyrrolate (Bevespi Aerosphere)
- Glycopyrrolate and indacaterol (Utibron)
- Olodaterol and tiotropium (Stiolto Respimat)
- Umeclidinium and vilanterol (Anoro Ellipta)
For people who experience periods when their COPD becomes more severe, called moderate or severe acute exacerbation, short courses (for example, five days) of oral corticosteroids may prevent further worsening of COPD. However, long-term use of these medications can have serious side effects, such as weight gain, diabetes, osteoporosis, cataracts and an increased risk of infection.
A medication approved for people with severe COPD and symptoms of chronic bronchitis is roflumilast (Daliresp), a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. This drug decreases airway inflammation and relaxes the airways. Common side effects include diarrhea and weight loss.
When other treatment has been ineffective or if cost is a factor, theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Theochron), a less expensive medication, may help improve breathing and prevent episodes of worsening COPD. Side effects are dose related and may include nausea, headache, fast heartbeat and tremor, so tests are used to monitor blood levels of the medication.
Respiratory infections, such as acute bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza, can aggravate COPD symptoms. Antibiotics help treat episodes of worsening COPD, but they aren't generally recommended for prevention. Some studies show that certain antibiotics, such as azithromycin (Zithromax), prevent episodes of worsening COPD, but side effects and antibiotic resistance may limit their use.
Doctors often use these additional therapies for people with moderate or severe COPD:
Oxygen therapy. If there isn't enough oxygen in your blood, you may need supplemental oxygen. There are several devices that deliver oxygen to your lungs, including lightweight, portable units that you can take with you to run errands and get around town.
Some people with COPD use oxygen only during activities or while sleeping. Others use oxygen all the time. Oxygen therapy can improve quality of life and is the only COPD therapy proved to extend life. Talk to your doctor about your needs and options.
Pulmonary rehabilitation program. These programs generally combine education, exercise training, nutrition advice and counseling. You'll work with a variety of specialists, who can tailor your rehabilitation program to meet your needs.
Pulmonary rehabilitation after episodes of worsening COPD may reduce readmission to the hospital, increase your ability to participate in everyday activities and improve your quality of life. Talk to your doctor about referral to a program.
In-home noninvasive ventilation therapy
Evidence supports in-hospital use of breathing devices such as bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), but some research now supports the benefit of its use at home. A noninvasive ventilation therapy machine with a mask helps to improve breathing and decrease retention of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) that may lead to acute respiratory failure and hospitalization. More research is needed to determine the best ways to use this therapy.
Even with ongoing treatment, you may experience times when symptoms become worse for days or weeks. This is called an acute exacerbation, and it may lead to lung failure if you don't receive prompt treatment.
Exacerbations may be caused by a respiratory infection, air pollution or other triggers of inflammation. Whatever the cause, it's important to seek prompt medical help if you notice a sustained increase in coughing or a change in your mucus, or if you have a harder time breathing.
When exacerbations occur, you may need additional medications (such as antibiotics, steroids or both), supplemental oxygen or treatment in the hospital. Once symptoms improve, your doctor can talk with you about measures to prevent future exacerbations, such as quitting smoking; taking inhaled steroids, long-acting bronchodilators or other medications; getting your annual flu vaccine; and avoiding air pollution whenever possible.
Surgery is an option for some people with some forms of severe emphysema who aren't helped sufficiently by medications alone. Surgical options include:
Lung volume reduction surgery. In this surgery, your surgeon removes small wedges of damaged lung tissue from the upper lungs. This creates extra space in your chest cavity so that the remaining healthier lung tissue can expand and the diaphragm can work more efficiently. In some people, this surgery can improve quality of life and prolong survival.
Endoscopic lung volume reduction ― a minimally invasive procedure ― has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat people with COPD. A tiny one-way endobronchial valve is placed in the lung, allowing the most damaged lobe to shrink so that the healthier part of the lung has more space to expand and function.
- Lung transplant. Lung transplantation may be an option for certain people who meet specific criteria. Transplantation can improve your ability to breathe and to be active. However, it's a major operation that has significant risks, such as organ rejection, and youꞌll need to take lifelong immune-suppressing medications.
- Bullectomy. Large air spaces (bullae) form in the lungs when the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) are destroyed. These bullae can become very large and cause breathing problems. In a bullectomy, doctors remove bullae from the lungs to help improve air flow.