Heart valve disease treatment depends on how severe your condition is, if you're experiencing signs and symptoms, and if your condition is getting worse.
A doctor trained in heart disease (cardiologist) will provide your care. If you have heart valve disease, consider being evaluated and treated at a medical center with a multidisciplinary team of doctors and medical staff trained and experienced in evaluating and treating heart valve disease. This team can work closely with you to determine the most appropriate treatment for your condition.
Your doctor may suggest monitoring your condition with regular follow-up appointments. Your doctor may also recommend making healthy lifestyle changes and taking medications to treat symptoms.
You may eventually need heart valve surgery to repair or replace the diseased heart valve. Doctors may suggest heart valve surgery even if you aren't experiencing symptoms, as this may prevent complications and improve outcomes. If you need surgery for another heart condition, your doctor may repair or replace the diseased valve at the same time.
Heart valve surgery is usually performed through a cut (incision) in the chest. Doctors may sometimes conduct minimally invasive heart surgery, which involves the use of smaller incisions than those used in open-heart surgery. In some medical centers, doctors may perform robot-assisted heart surgery, a type of minimally invasive heart surgery in which surgeons use robotic instruments to conduct the procedure.
Doctors may also use less invasive procedures to repair certain valves using long, thin tubes (catheters) in some people. These procedures can involve the use of clips, plugs or other devices. In some cases, valves can be replaced during a catheter procedure. Doctors continue to study catheter procedures to repair or replace heart valves.
Surgery options include the procedures below.
Heart valve repair
Your doctor may often recommend heart valve repair when possible, as it preserves your heart valve and may preserve heart function. To repair a valve, surgeons may separate valve flaps (leaflets or cusps) that have fused, replace the cords that support the valve, remove excess valve tissue so that the leaflets or cusps can close tightly, or patch holes in a valve. Surgeons may often tighten or reinforce the ring around a valve (annulus) by implanting an artificial ring.
Heart valve replacement
If the valve can't be repaired, surgeons may perform heart valve replacement. In heart valve replacement, your surgeon removes the damaged valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made from cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological or tissue valve).
Biological tissue valves degenerate over time, and often eventually need to be replaced. People with mechanical valves will need to take blood-thinning medications for life to prevent blood clots. Your doctor will discuss with you the benefits and risks of each type of valve and discuss which valve may be appropriate for you.
A minimally invasive procedure called transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may be used to replace a damaged aortic valve. In this procedure, the doctor inserts a long, thin tube (catheter) into an artery in your leg or chest and guides it to the heart valve. A replacement valve is moved through this catheter to the correct position.